Sonipat district is one of the districts of the state of Haryana with headquarters at Sonipat town. The district touches Delhi on one end, Panipat District on the other, and the Yamuna River acting as a border in one direction and Rohtak on the other side. District Sonepat comprises of three sub-divisions namely Ganaur, Sonepat and Gohana and seven blocks (Ganaur,Sonepat ,Rai, Kharkhoda, Gohana, Kathura and Mundlana) has been carved out of Rohtak and made a full fledged District on 22/12/1972. Other smaller towns are Gohana, Ganaur, Murthal and Rai. The total area of Sonipat district is 2,260 sq km.
Sonipat was earlier known as Sonprastha, which later on became Swarnprastha, meaning the "golden city": derived from two Sanskrit words, Swarn (gold) and Prastha (place). Over a period of time, the classical name Swarnprasth's pronunciation degerated into Swarnpat, and then to its current form of Sonipat. The earliest reference of this city comes in the epic Mahabharata, and at that time it was one of the five villages demanded by the Pandavas in lieu of the kingdom of Hastinapur.
The world renowned Atlas Cycles factory is located at Sonipat.
Sonipat city is a tehsil and capital of Sonipat district in the state of Haryana. Its geographical coordinates are 28.98°North and 77.02°E and has an elevation of 224.15 meters (735.4 ft).
Sonipat district is a part of the National Capital Region (NCR) and is located 45 km north of Delhi. Physically, Sonipat region is bordered by Delhi in the South, Panipat District in the North, Jind District in the North-west, Rohtak District in the West and Uttar Pradesh state in the East. The district is a part of the Punjab plain and Yamuna River irrigates the area. The district is divided into three regions: The Khadar, the Upland plain and the Sandy region.
The city derives its name from its history. Sonipat was called Somprastha earlier which was later known as Svarnaprastha (Golden City) that was originated from two Sanskrit words – Svarna (means Gold) and Prastha (means place). Being a part of the Pandava Kingdom the place was blessed with loads of gold and that’s how it was called the Place of Gold. As time passed by the name kept being mispronounced as per convenience. From Svarnaprastha it became Svarnpat, then Somprastha and finally Sonipat, also spelt as Sonepat.
Sonipat is the district headquarters and a municipal council in the Sonipat district. It is one of the oldest towns in the state of Haryana. The area is a part of the Eastern plains of Haryana State and the Yamuna River flows through the area.
Sonipat was declared as a separate district on 22 December 1972 with Sonipat city as its capital. Sonipat, in addition to its ancient culture, is a great industrial place. Sonipat rice processing plant is Asia's only plant with SQF Certification. There are many esteemed schools and colleges in Sonipat.
Many big and well known industries are located in the city. To name a few:
1. Atlas Cycle Industry: The biggest cycle manufacturer in the country.
2. Electric Construction & Equipment Co. Ltd. (ECE): A Company of B. K. Birla Group which manufactures Transformer and Switchgear.
3. Osram India: Manufacturer of Electric Bulb, florescent lamps and Tube light
4. LT Overseas: A global rice food company (Daawat Rice).
The plain slopes gradually towards the South and East. It can be divided into three regions:
The Khadar: It is a narrow flood plain that is 3 km to 6 km in width. The fine clay in the soil is formed by the particles left by the floods in the Yamuna River. Rice and Sugarcane are cultivated in the area. The cultivation of Banana and Papaya has been recently started.
The Upland Plain: To the west of the Khadar is the Upland Plain. It is the most widespread of all the three regions. The area is covered with productive old Alluvium. Oil seeds, horticultural plants, vegetables and flowers are grown in this area.
The Sandy Region: The smaller portion of the plain is covered with soil containing sand or sandy loam having high PH value.
Its location close to National Capital Territory and easy accessibility through NH 1 has resulted in the region gaining popularity and rapid urbanization of the city. Also the initiatives taken by HUDA (Haryana Urban Development Authority) and HSIDC (Haryana State Industrial Development Corporation) has impacted towards the fast growth, high literacy rate, technology and better quality of life for the people of Sonipat.
The Haryana Government has taken special measures to development the city as a major satellite town of the National Capital Region (NCR) by proposing as many as 38 sectors for accommodating its population in the industrial and commercial areas.
The nearest big town is New Delhi which is 45 kms from Sonipat. New Delhi is the country's capital and a metropolitan city.