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The Rohtas district is a part of Patna Division, and it has an area of 3850 km² (square kilometres), a population of 2,448,762 (2001 census), and a population density of 636 persons per km². The language spoken in this area is Bhojpuri.
The administrative headquarters of the district, Sasaram is a place of historical importance. Another important symbol of national pride are the parallel bridges built over the Sone River – one for road and another for railway. The road bridge (Jawahar Setu built by Gammon India in 1963–65) over Sone was the longest (3061 m) in Asia until it was surpassed by the Mahatma Gandhi setu (5475 m) over the river Ganges at Patna. Nehru Setu, the railway bridge is the second longest railway bridge in India.

The district is also home to the Rohtasgarh fort, which was one of the strongest forts in the medieval age.