Ernakulam, also referred to as Cochin, is called the Queen of the Arabian Sea. The commercial hub of Kerala, it is a fast growing city abuzz with industries, shopping malls, cinema houses, hotels and restaurants. Known for its Chinese fishing nets, churches, synagogues and the spectacular backwaters, Cochin is a developed city that has preserved its natural beauty.
The town has three main parts- Fort Cochin, Willingdon Island and Ernakulam. Fort Cochin (Fort Kochi) occupies the Southern cape on the seaward side of the Bay. Willingdon Island is a man-made island which was created from the sand dug out from deepening the port. Across the causeway from Willingdon Island is Ernakulam. The Bolghatty Island, a long narrow peninsula, is situated at the opposite side of Ernakulam jetty. The Vypeen Island is situated beyond Bolghatty Island.
Ernakulam (or Cochin) is located on the coast of the Arabian Sea with Allapuzha on the South, Idukki on the East and Thrissur on the North. The commercial capital and of Kerala, Ernakulam, is one of the finest natural harbours in the world which is a major centre of trade and commerce.
Ernakulam district formed on 1st April 1958 carving areas of erstwhile Travancore-Kochi-Malabar kingdoms. Major portion of the district is from the Kochi kingdom. The district consists of the mainland Ernakulam, the man made Willington Island, Mattanchery, Fort Kochi, world's most populous area of Vypeen Island, Bolghatty Palace etc. Kochi is the most modern city of Kerala where the best shopping, markets and bazars are located.
From time immemorial Arabs, Chinese, Dutch, British and Portuguese seafarers followed the sea route to Kochi and left their impressions in the town. The Chinese fishing nets, believed to be erected in 1350 AD, swaying in the breeze over backwaters, the Jewish Synagogue, Dutch Palace, Portuguese Architecture, Bolghatty Palace etc. enrich the heritage of Kerala.
The word Ernakulam was drawn from a Tamil word Erayanarkulam means abode of Lord Shiva's.
The present Ernakulam District include Paravur, Aluva, Kochi, Kanayannoor, Muvattupuzha, Kunnathunadu, Kothamangalam Taluks which come under Fortkochi and Muvattupuzha Revenue Sub Division. Prior to the formation of Idukki District, Thodupuzha Taluk was also a part of Ernakulam District. Ernakulam District was formed on April 1st 1958. The District which has an area of 895.3Sq.K.M. can be divided geographically as Highland, Midland and Coastal area. The altitude of Highland is about 1000 feet.
The borders of the district are the Arabian Sea in the West, Thrissur District in the North, Idukki District in the East and Alappuzha and Kottayam District in the South. Periyar, Kerala's second largest river flows through all the Taluks except Muvattupuzha. Muvattupuzha river and a branch of Chalakkudy river all gifts of this District. Average rainfall yearly is 3431.8 mm and 139 rain days. As there are rivers, lakes and seas the region has a moderate climate. Temperature is between 31.3oCand 25.8oC . Many types of sands and soil and also rocks which are geological importance is abundant here.