Adoni is situated in Kurnool district and located on the border of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. It is renowned as a commercial town and is famous for its textile mills. During the British rule, it was considered as an important business hub.

Due to its huge production of cotton and big market yard, it is known as the Town of Cotton or Grain Market of South India. It is popular for arts and crafts along with the famous fort of Adoni.

The history of Adoni dates back to the Ramayana era. According to mythology, Sri Rama is believed to have ventured this place during Vanavasa. Adoni was ruled by the Yadavas in the 16th century. At that time, it was known as Yadavagiri.

The city then changed into Adavani when it came under the control of an Islamic ruler. Later, the name of the city was converted to Adoni. Muslims ruled the town until 1792 and the rule was ended by the war between the British East India Company and Tipu Sultan. Adoni was in Bellary district of the Madras presidency under the rule of the British government.

The major tourist attractions of this place are Adoni fort, Jumma Masjid and Kaman Bavi. The fort, now in ruins, is located on a granite hill and was built about 300 years ago. Jumma Masjid is a fine piece of Muslim Architect. It was built by Madu Quadir, who was an Adil Shahi Governor, in 1680 AD.

Kaman Bavi or Kaman well, is another attraction of Adoni. It was constructed by Siddi Masud Khan, the Muslim Governor of Adoni. Apart from these, there are other attractions like Venkanna Bavi, Ranamandala Anjanaswamy Temple, Baichigeri Sai Baba Ashramam and Sri Mahayogi Laxmamma Avva Temple.

Adoni is located in the western part of Andhra Pradesh and is the second biggest town of Kurnool district. It is 300 km from Hyderabad and 494 km from Chennai by train. The nearest airport to Adoni is Hyderabad airport, which is 225 kilometre away. It is well connected to the important places of Kurnool districts by road.

The tropical climate of the city stays hot in the summer and moderately cool in winter. The best time to visit Adoni is between the months of October to March.
Adoni has undergone a number of substantial changes over the past few centuries. Emerging as a military base for the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century, the city has evolved to become a modern, manufacturing hub. Under the Vijayanagara, the city stood at the center of the consolidation of a shifting, fragmented countryside into a more structured empire. Even after the Empire fell in the 16th century, as a product of military conflicts, the city remained a core part of Southern Indian history.

After the fall of Vijayanagar, Adoni was taken possession of by the Bijapur sovereigns. Adoni was under Bijapur in the period of 16th and 17th century. It was the principal fort of the Kurnool district. In the 17th century, Kurnool was under the governorship of an hereditary line of jagirdars of African origin, who were among the most powerful nobles at court. In 1683, one noble, Siddi Masud, the governor of Kurnool and regent of Sultan Sikandar Bijapuri, retired to Adoni, where he ruled independently till 1689. In that year, he surrendered to the Mughal general Anup Singh, maharaja of Bikaner Siddi Masud is credited with improving the fort at Adoni, clearing the forest area in the vicinity of Adoni and establishing the townships of Imatiazgadh and Adilabad, and also constructing the fine Jamia Masjid. Art historian Mark Zebrowski notes in his book Deccani Painting that the capture of Adoni revealed that Siddi Masud had been an avid collector of painting, and a patron of the Kurnool school of painting. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, Adoni remained under governors appointed by the Nizams of Hyderabad. In 1760, it was held by Basalut Jung, who made it his capital. In 1786-7, Tipu Sultan besieged Adoni and after a month's siege, captured it. After his death and defeat at the hands of the English, Adoni was ceded to the English.

Under British rule South India was divided into several administrative districts; Adoni fell into the district of Bellary of Madras presidency. In 1867 AD, The Adoni Municipal Council was created, along with the Bellary Municipal Council. These were the only two municipal townships in the whole of Bellary district for a long time.

The city gained its present seat as part of the state of Andhra Pradesh in 1953, after the linguistic reorganization of states. On October 1, 1953, Bellary district of Madras State was divided on linguistic basis, and Adoni (along with Yemmiganur, Alur, Raayadurgam, D.Hirehaalu, Kanekallu, Bommanahaalu, and Gummagatta) were merged into Anantapuram and Kurnool district in what would later became the Andhra Pradesh state. While the city constantly shifted its governmental structure, it emerged as a trade hub as a product of its impressive bounties of grain and gold, along with cloth and textile production. Over the century, the city built up an entire industry of cotton mills, solidifying its place in the county’s modern trade economy. Today, Adoni is one of the biggest and commercial towns in Rayalaseema and also in Andhra Pradesh State.